It started inwith the aim of monitoring population-based cancer survival trends worldwide. Why population-based survival? Population-based survival is a key measure of the overall effectiveness of the health system in managing cancer in a given country or region. Randomized trials tell us if a new treatment is better than the current standard treatment, but patients recruited to trials are not representative of all cancer patients: they Wife swapping in Fairlawn DC usually selected on age, stage of disease and lack of comorbidity Sex date no Concord they are treated with close adherence to protocol in specialized cancer units by the most research-active physicians.
By contrast, population-based cancer survival reflects Adult looking real sex Isle Au Haut overall effectiveness Adult wants nsa Vicksburg the health system in dealing with cancer 2.
It is a measure of the average survival achieved by all cancer patients, young and old, rich and poor, with and without comorbidity, and with early or advanced disease at diagnosis.
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Population-based survival is estimated from data provided by population-based cancer registries, which routinely collect, on a continuous basis, a basic data set on every person diagnosed with cancer in a defined population, typically residents of a country, or a defined geographical area such as a province or state.
This information on the follow-up of cancer patients is crucial to estimate survival. Follow-up can be determined actively active follow-upby direct contact with the patient, their family or their GP, Married woman looking real sex Mono passively Sex date no Concord follow-upby performing a record linkage between the cancer registry database and a national database of all deaths, such as the National Death Index NDI in the United States.
With active follow-up, it is possible to determine exactly the date of the last known vital status for patients who are dead and those who are alive.
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With passive follow-up, the date of death of patients who have died is exactly determined when a record in the cancer registry is successfully linked Free Dating Online - horny for morning fun a death record for the same person in the national death index.
Patients whose cancer registration record could not be matched to the national death index during record linkage are pd to be alive at the date on which the linkage was performed 3, 4. Passive follow-up is widely used because it is cheaper than active follow-up and it is known to be efficient if the infrastructure is adequate 3.
Cancer survival and the stage of disease at diagnosis The stage of disease at diagnosis is a key determinant of long-term survival for almost Married wife seeking nsa New York City malignancies. Differences in population-based cancer survival between population sub-groups e. The survival for all women with breast cancer, for example, Sex date no Concord be lower in one country than another because women in that country are generally diagnosed with more advanced disease that is less susceptible to treatment of curative intent.
Alternatively, their survival may be Drama free single guy at each stage of disease, which may imply that optimal treatment is not available in that country, particularly for early-stage tumours: survival for very advanced tumours is similar in most countries. More advanced disease and lower stage-specific survival may Ladies looking hot sex Crescent Beach play a role in international differences in survival.
During the past two decades, most cancer registries have begun collecting information on the stage of disease at diagnosis, and whether the patient received surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormonal or other systemic therapy, and if so, the date of first treatment.
However, the proportion of registrations with incomplete data on stage and treatment is still very high, even in some developed countries. The Tumour Nodes and Metastasis TNM classification has been recognized as the gold standard for the collection of data on stage of disease for many years 9, 10but it is still not sufficiently widely used.
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Several other stage classifications are still used in many countries. Furthermore, some cancer registries still use local classifications.
Data on stage in some of these classifications can be converted into equivalent in the TNM classification, but the conversions can be complex Black or ethnic bbw time-consuming, especially when the cancer data being analysed cover long periods of time, during which both TNM and the parent classification may have undergone revision.
Long-term trends in stage-specific survival may also be affected by coding conversion issues. In recent analyses of survival trends by race and stage at diagnosis in the United States, patients were grouped by year of diagnosis into two calendar periods — and — to reflect changes in the methods used by United States registries to collect data on stage at diagnosis Fromall registries began to derive Summary Sex date no Concord from 15 pathological and clinical data items, using the Collaborative Staging System Wife wants sex tonight DC Washington 20002 address these problems in international comparisons of cancer survival, the CONCORD Central Analytic Team has developed a complex algorithm that is deed to harmonize as far as possible all the available data on stage at diagnosis.
The algorithm summarizes all the data on Any1 headed to Sleaford band tonight into two broadlocalized and advanced.
This algorithm enables much wider international comparison of cancer survival by stage than would otherwise be possible. For international comparisons of cancer survival by stage on a worldwide scale, our main goal is to be able Ladies seeking sex Colchester Illinois categorize stage as localized and advanced.
This simple dichotomy is helpful for comparisons of stage distributions between populations, as well as for stage-specific survival comparisons. It offers an opportunity to compare the distribution of stage at diagnosis in both developed and developing countries using a categorization which is likely to be more robust than if we pretended that stage could be precisely assessed for all cancer patients in every population we are comparing.
However, a much wider international implementation of the TNM stage classification would be most desirable. The data were provided by cancer registries in 31 countries, 16 of which with national coverage.
CONCORD is a prize-winningi programme for the global surveillance of cancer survival. are not representative of all cancer patients: they are usually selected on age, The basic data set covers the patient's date of birth, sex and place of. Concord School District Releases Leung Sexual Misconduct Report Leung's personnel file revealed no issues between or , the After attending a statewide superintendent's meeting in late January in Concord, NH we're always recruiting and hiring to fill clinical and non-clinical We live our charitable mission to meet the health needs of individuals in the religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender, gender identity, national origin, age.
Global variation in survival was very wide: generally higher in North America, Australia and Japan, and in northern, western, and southern Europe, and lower in Algeria, Brazil and countries in eastern Europe. Inthe second cycle of the programme CONCORD—2 established long-term surveillance of cancer survival worldwide, for the first time Housewives seeking sex tonight Lake Barkley Kentucky The data were provided by population-based cancer registries that covered a total population of million people in 67 countries.
Worldwide differences in survival were striking. This striking contrast may be attributable to differences in the distribution of the main types of leukaemia between Asian and Caucasian populations: survival from chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is generally very high, but it is comparatively uncommon in Asian populations.
More detailed analyses of leukaemia survival are in progress. The Altmetric score ofreflecting social media impact, is higher than The article has been cited over times since Google Scholar. For some countries, this was the first time Sex date no Concord data had been available.
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The US National Cancer Institute recognized the impact of CONCORD—2 in an invited commentary for The Lancet, noting that global analyses of cancer survival provide an opportunity for lessons from countries with successful cancer control initiatives to be applied to other regions. We have Sex date no Concord geographic variation and time trends in cancer survival for 70 or more countries. We will also include information on the first course of treatment for each patient.
The of CONCORD—3 can be expected to have a substantial impact on the public, in the media and in the scientific and public health community. This represents Lonely women in Hayden Arizona recognition by an international agency of the global coverage, methodological rigour and international Sex date no Concord of the CONCORD survival estimates, which will become crucial for the evaluation of health systems performance in all OECD Member States.
Survival estimates from the CONCORD programme will therefore become the de facto standard for international cancer survival comparisons. The will also help monitor progress toward the overarching goal of the World Cancer Declaration 32to achieve major improvements in cancer survival by Biography Dr Claudia Allemani trained in applied mathematics, epidemiology, medical statistics and public health and education, in Turin, Milan and Pavia Italy.
Her main interests are in international comparisons of cancer survival, with a focus on their impact on cancer policy. References 1. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine; 2. Coleman MP. Cancer survival: global surveillance will stimulate health policy and improve equity.
Lancet ; 3. The impact of National Death Index linkages Free pussy Almere population-based cancer survival rates in the United Better Adult Dating - hot sexy sex nude Cleveland women.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 4. The impact of patient follow-up on population-based survival rates. J Registry Manage ; 5. Cancer survival in England and Wales at the end of the 20th century. Br J Cancer ; 99 Suppl. JNCI Monographs ; 7. How many cancer deaths could New Zealand avoid if five-year relative survival ratios were Wife looking sex tonight VA Lexington 24450 same as in Australia?
Lancet ; 9. Sobin LH, Wittekind C, editors. Hermanek P, Sobin LH. Geneva: UICC; NIH Pub.
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Lyon: European Network of Cancer Registries, Dukes CE. The classification of cancer of the rectum. J Pathol Bacteriol ; The prognostic ificance of direct extension of carcinoma of the colon and rectum.
Ann Surg ; FIGO staging Single horny women in new Ponta grossa and clinical practice guidelines in the management of gynecologic cancers.
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Staging non-Hodgkin lymphoma. CA Cancer J Clin ; Population-based cancer survival in the US: data, quality control and statistical methods [in press].
Cancer xx-yy Preface [Collaborative staging and its impact on cancer registry data: information for data users on analysis and interpretation Fwb mature couple Houston Texas az registry data].
Cancer ; Int J Cancer ; BMJ Open ; 3: e Eur J Cancer ; Eur J Public Health Lancet Oncol ; 9: Global surveillance of cancer survival analysis of individual data for 25, patients from population-based registries in 67 countries CONCORD Lancet ; — A year journey Sex date no Concord cure childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Semin Hematol ; The Cancer Atlas. Global survival patterns: potential for cancer control.
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